Chapter 20 starts a section of rules/laws with the Ten Commandments.
The rules that come after have the feeling of “fairness” – if you do something, you have to make up for it. There are conditions for certain cases (if the ox was known for goring…) so that it’s not just blindly following.
The idea I’d hope to take away from this is that God wants us to treat each other fairly. And expect others to do the same – not just back to us, but also to others.
These sections are mostly about injuries and property, but there are some rules like “You shall not allow a sorcerer to live.” Also, don’t afflict any widow or orphan… and if you do, they will cry out to God… and He will hear.
So even those w/o protection have protection.